Preview

Альманах клинической медицины

Расширенный поиск

Синдром низкого сердечного выброса в кардиохирургии

https://doi.org/10.18786/2072-0505-2019-47-035

Полный текст:

Аннотация

Синдром низкого сердечного выброса - одно из самых грозных и часто встречающихся осложнений в кардиохирургии. Оно значительно повышает риск развития осложнений и летальности. Выявлено множество прогностических признаков возникновения данного синдрома, включая предоперационные и интраоперационные факторы риска, а также различные лабораторные предикторы. Патофизиологические механизмы развития синдрома низкого сердечного выброса ограничены не только систолической дисфункцией миокарда - его развитию могут также способствовать диастолическая дисфункция и клапанные нарушения. Существует широкий спектр методов гемодинамического мониторинга, каждый из которых имеет определенную инвазивность и достоверность. Целенаправленная гемодинамическая терапия должна основываться на наиболее информативных и точных техниках мониторинга, а ее задачей представляется поддержание баланса между доставкой и потреблением кислорода. Лечение синдрома низкого сердечного выброса позволяет обеспечить адекватную гемодинамическую поддержку, тем самым увеличивая доставку кислорода к тканям и предотвращая органную дисфункцию. Терапией первой линии, сразу после коррекции волемического статуса, является использование инотропных, вазопрессорных и вазодилатирующих препаратов, что способствует повышению сократимости и оптимизации преднагрузки и постнагрузки. В наиболее тяжелых случаях может возникнуть необходимость применения средств механической поддержки, таких как внутриаортальный баллонный контрпульсатор, устройства вспомогательного кровообращения и экстракорпоральная мембранная оксигенация.

Об авторах

Д. Н. Мерекин
ФГБУ «Национальный медицинский исследовательский центр имени академика Е.Н. Мешалкина» Минздрава России
Россия

Ломиворотов Владимир Владимирович - доктор медицинских наук, профессор, член-корреспондент РАН, руководитель центра анестезиологии и реаниматологии, Researcher ID: L-7868-2014.

630057, Новосибирск, ул. Барьерная, 30/1



В. В. Ломиворотов
ФГБУ «Национальный медицинский исследовательский центр имени академика Е.Н. Мешалкина» Минздрава России
Россия

Ломиворотов Владимир Владимирович - доктор медицинских наук, профессор, член-корреспондент РАН, руководитель центра анестезиологии и реаниматологии, Researcher ID: L-7868-2014.

630057, Новосибирск, ул. Барьерная, 30/1



С. М. Ефремов
ФГБУ «Национальный медицинский исследовательский центр имени академика Е.Н. Мешалкина» Минздрава России
Россия

Ефремов Сергей Михайлович - доктор медицинских наук, врач анестезиолог-реаниматолог отделения реанимации и интенсивной терапии.

630057, Новосибирск, ул. Барьерная, 30/1



М. Ю. Киров
ФГБОУ ВО «Северный государственный медицинский университет» Минздрава России
Россия

Киров Михаил Юрьевич - доктор медицинских наук, профессор, заведующий кафедрой анестезиологии и реаниматологии.

163000, Архангельск, Троицкий пр-т, 51



В. Н. Ломиворотов
ФГБУ «Национальный медицинский исследовательский центр имени академика Е.Н. Мешалкина» Минздрава России
Россия

Ломиворотов Владимир Николаевич - доктор медицинских наук, профессор учебного центра.

630057, Новосибирск, ул. Барьерная, 30/1



Список литературы

1. Bridgewater B; Adult Cardiac Surgeons of North West England. Mortality data in adult cardiac surgery for named surgeons: retrospective examination of prospectively collected data on coronary artery surgery and aortic valve replacement. BMJ. 2005;330(7490):506-10. doi: 10.1136/bmj.330.7490.506.

2. Chen JC, Kaul P, Levy JH, Haverich A, Me-nasche P, Smith PK, Carrier M, Verrier ED, Van de Werf F, Burge R, Finnegan P, Mark DB, Sher-nan SK; PRIMO-CABG Investigators. Myocardial infarction following coronary artery bypass graft surgery increases healthcare resource utilization. Crit Care Med. 2007;35(5):1296-301. doi: 10.1097/01.CCM.0000262403.08546.A2.

3. Lomivorotov VV, Efremov SM, Pokushalov EA, Romanov AB, Ponomarev DN, Cherniavsky AM, Shilova AN, Karaskov AM, Lomivorotov VN. Randomized trial of fish oil infusion to prevent atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: data from an implantable continuous cardiac monitor. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2014;28(5): 1278-84. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2014.02.019.

4. Maganti MD, Rao V, Borger MA, Ivanov J, David TE. Predictors of low cardiac output syndrome after isolated aortic valve surgery. Circulation. 2005;112(9 Suppl):I448-52. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.104.526087.

5. Maganti M, Badiwala M, Sheikh A, Scully H, Fein-del C, David TE, Rao V. Predictors of low cardiac output syndrome after isolated mitral valve surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;140(4): 790-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2009.11.022.

6. Vincent JL, De Backer D. Circulatory shock. N Engl J Med. 2013;369(18):1726-34. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1208943.

7. Algarni KD, Maganti M, Yau TM. Predictors of low cardiac output syndrome after isolated coronary artery bypass surgery: trends over 20 years. Ann Thorac Surg. 2011;92(5):1678-84. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.06.017.

8. Rihal CS, Naidu SS, Givertz MM, Szeto WY, Burke JA, Kapur NK, Kern M, Garratt KN, Goldstein JA, Dimas V, Tu T; Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI); Heart Failure Society of America (HFSA); Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS); American Heart Association (AHA), and American College of Cardiology (ACC). 2015 SCAI/ACC/HFSA/STS Clinical Expert Consensus Statement on the Use of Percutaneous Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices in Cardiovascular Care: Endorsed by the American Heart Association, the Cardiological Society of India, and Sociedad Latino Americana de Cardiologia Intervencion; Affirmation of Value by the Canadian Association of Interventional Cardiology-Association Canadienne de Cardiologie d'intervention. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015;65(19):e7-26. doi: 10.1016/j. jacc.2015.03.036.

9. Landoni G, Bove T, Crivellari M, Poli D, Fochi O, Marchetti C, Romano A, Marino G, Zangrillo A. Acute renal failure after isolated CABG surgery: six years of experience. Minerva Anestesiol. 2007;73(11):559-65.

10. Newman MF, Mathew JP, Grocott HP, Mack-ensen GB, Monk T, Welsh-Bohmer KA, Blu-menthal JA, Laskowitz DT, Mark DB. Central nervous system injury associated with cardiac surgery. Lancet. 2006;368(9536):694-703. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69254-4.

11. Aranki SF, Shaw DP, Adams DH, Rizzo RJ, Coup-er GS, VanderVliet M, Collins JJ Jr, Cohn LH, Burstin HR. Predictors of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery surgery. Current trends and impact on hospital resources. Circulation. 1996;94(3):390-7. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.94.3.390.

12. Lahm T, McCaslin CA, Wozniak TC, Ghum-man W, Fadl YY, Obeidat OS, Schwab K, Mel-drum DR. Medical and surgical treatment of acute right ventricular failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56(18):1435-46. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.05.046.

13. Hamad MA, van Straten AH, Schonberg-er JP, ter Woorst JF, de Wolf AM, Martens EJ, van Zundert AA. Preoperative ejection fraction as a predictor of survival after coronary artery bypass grafting: comparison with a matched general population. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2010;5:29. doi: 10.1186/1749-8090-5-29.

14. Osawa EA, Rhodes A, Landoni G, Galas FR, Fukushima JT, Park CH, Almeida JP, Nakamura RE, Strabelli TM, Pileggi B, Leme AC, Fomin-skiy E, Sakr Y, Lima M, Franco RA, Chan RP, Pic-cioni MA, Mendes P, Menezes SR, Bruno T, Gaiotto FA, Lisboa LA, Dallan LA, Hueb AC, Pomerantzeff PM, Kalil Filho R, Jatene FB, Aul-er Junior JO, Hajjar LA. Effect of Perioperative Goal-Directed Hemodynamic Resuscitation Therapy on Outcomes Following Cardiac Surgery: A randomized clinical trial and systematic review. Crit Care Med. 2016;44(4):724-33. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001479.

15. Nashef SA, Roques F, Michel P, Gauducheau E, Lemeshow S, Salamon R. European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE). Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 1999;16(1):9-13. doi: 10.1016/s1010-7940(99)00134-7.

16. Ding W, Ji Q, Shi Y, Ma R. Predictors of low cardiac output syndrome after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting. Int Heart J. 2015;56(2): 144-9. doi: 10.1536/ihj.14-231.

17. Sa MP, Nogueira JR, Ferraz PE, Figueiredo OJ, Cavalcante WC, Cavalcante TC, Silva HT, Santos CA, Lima RO, Vasconcelos FP, Lima Rde C. Risk factors for low cardiac output syndrome after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2012;27(2):217-23. doi: 10.5935/1678-9741.20120037.

18. Pan W, Hindler K, Lee VV, Vaughn WK, Col-lard CD. Obesity in diabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery is associated with increased postoperative morbidity. Anesthesiology. 2006;104(3):441-7. doi: 10.1097/00000542-200603000-00010.

19. Tolpin DA, Collard CD, Lee VV, Elayda MA, Pan W. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity after coronary artery bypass graft surgery in patients with renal insufficiency. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009;138(4):873-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2009.02.019.

20. Lomivorotov VV, Efremov SM, Boboshko VA, Nikolaev DA, Vedernikov PE, Lomivorotov VN, Karaskov AM. Evaluation of nutritional screening tools for patients scheduled for cardiac surgery. Nutrition. 2013;29(2):436-42. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2012.08.006.

21. Hernandez-Leiva E, Dennis R, Isaza D, Umana JP. Hemoglobin and B-type natriuretic peptide preoperative values but not inflammatory markers, are associated with postoperative morbidity in cardiac surgery: a prospective cohort analytic study. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2013;8:170. doi: 10.1186/1749-8090-8-170.

22. Lomivorotov VV, Efremov SM, Boboshko VA, Leyderman IN, Lomivorotov VN, Cheung AT, Karaskov AM. Preoperative total lymphocyte count in peripheral blood as a predictor of poor outcome in adult cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2011;25(6):975-80. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2010.12.006.

23. Cuthbertson BH, Croal BL, Rae D, Gibson PH, McNeilly JD, Jeffrey RR, Smith WC, Prescott GJ, Buchan KG, El-Shafei H, Gibson GA, Hillis GS. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels and early outcome after cardiac surgery: a prospective cohort study. Br J Anaesth. 2009;103(5):647-53. doi: 10.1093/bja/aep234.

24. Hutfless R, Kazanegra R, Madani M, Bhalla MA, Tulua-Tata A, Chen A, Clopton P, James C, Chiu A, Maisel AS. Utility of B-type natriuretic peptide in predicting postoperative complications and outcomes in patients undergoing heart surgery. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004;43(10): 1873-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2003.12.048.

25. Muehlschlegel JD, Perry TE, Liu KY, Fox AA, Collard CD, Shernan SK, Body SC. Heart-type fatty acid binding protein is an independent predictor of death and ventricular dysfunction after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Anesth Analg. 2010;111(5):1101-9. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181dd9516.

26. Kaplan JA, Reich DL, Savino J. Kaplan's cardiac anesthesia: The echo era. 6th edition. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2011. Available from: https://www.elsevier.com/books/kaplans-cardiac-anesthesia-the-echo-era/kaplan/978-1-4377-1617-7.

27. Mebazaa A, Gheorghiade M, Zannad F, Parril-lo JE. Acute heart failure. London: Springer; 2008. Available from: https://www.springer.com/us/book/9781846287817.

28. Alsaddique AA, Royse CF, Fouda MA, Royse AG. Diastolic heart failure after cardiac surgery. In: Gaze DC, editor. Coronary Artery Disease -Current Concepts in Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Diagnostics and Treatment. doi: 10.5772/31796.

29. Rodeheffer R, Miller W, Burnett J. Pathophysiology of circulatory failure. In: Giuliani E, Gersh B, Megoon M, editors. Mayo Clinic practice of clinical cardiology. 3rd edition. St Louis, MO: Mosby; 1996. p. 556-8.

30. Bossone E, Bodini BD, Mazza A, Allegra L. Pulmonary arterial hypertension: the key role of echocardiography. Chest. 2005;127(5):1836-43. doi: 10.1378/chest.127.5.1836.

31. Fletcher N, Geisen M, Meeran H, Spray D, Cec-coni M. Initial clinical experience with a miniaturized transesophageal echocardiography probe in a cardiac intensive care unit. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2015;29(3):582-7. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2014.09.016.

32. Zochios V, Jones N. Acute right heart syndrome in the critically ill patient. Heart Lung Vessel. 2014;6(3):157-70.

33. Brooks H, Kirk ES, Vokonas PS, Urschel CW, Sonnenblick EH. Performance of the right ventricle under stress: relation to right coronary flow. J Clin Invest. 1971;50(10):2176-83. doi: 10.1172/JCI106712.

34. Pfisterer M. Right ventricular involvement in myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock. Lancet. 2003;362(9381):392-4. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14028-7.

35. Jozwiak M, Monnet X, Teboul JL. Monitoring: from cardiac output monitoring to echocardiography. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2015;21(5):395-401. doi: 10.1097/MCC.0000000000000236.

36. Guarracino F, Bertini P. Perioperative haemodynamic management: is echocardiography the right tool? Curr Opin Crit Care. 2014;20(4): 431-7. doi: 10.1097/MCC.0000000000000111.

37. Judge O, Ji F, Fleming N, Liu H. Current use of the pulmonary artery catheter in cardiac surgery: a survey study. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2015;29(1):69-75. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2014.07.016.

38. Cecconi M, De Backer D, Antonelli M, Beale R, Bakker J, Hofer C, Jaeschke R, Mebazaa A, Pinsky MR, Teboul JL, Vincent JL, Rhodes A. Consensus on circulatory shock and hemodynamic monitoring. Task force of the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Intensive Care Med. 2014;40(12):1795-815. doi: 10.1007/s00134-014-3525-z.

39. Mebazaa A, Tolppanen H, Mueller C, Lassus J, DiSomma S, Baksyte G, Cecconi M, Choi DJ, Cohen Solal A, Christ M, Masip J, Arrigo M, Nouira S, Ojji D, Peacock F, Richards M, Sato N, Sliwa K, Spinar J, Thiele H, Yilmaz MB, Januz-zi J. Acute heart failure and cardiogenic shock: a multidisciplinary practical guidance. Intensive Care Med. 2016;42(2):147-63. doi: 10.1007/s00134-015-4041-5.

40. Peeters Y, Bernards J, Mekeirele M, Hoffmann B, De Raes M, Malbrain ML. Hemodynamic monitoring: To calibrate or not to calibrate? Part 1 -Calibrated techniques. Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther. 2015;47(5):487-500. doi: 10.5603/AIT.a2015.0073.

41. Bernards J, Mekeirele M, Hoffmann B, Peeters Y, De Raes M, Malbrain ML. Hemodynamic monitoring: To calibrate or not to calibrate? Part 2 -Non-calibrated techniques. Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther. 2015;47(5):501-16. doi: 10.5603/AIT.a2015.0076.

42. Tan HL, Pinder M, Parsons R, Roberts B, van Heerden PV. Clinical evaluation of USCOM ultrasonic cardiac output monitor in cardiac surgical patients in intensive care unit. Br J Anaesth. 2005;94(3):287-91. doi: 10.1093/bja/aei054.

43. Arora D, Chand R, Mehta Y, Trehan N. Cardiac output estimation after off-pump coronary artery bypass: a comparison of two different techniques. Ann Card Anaesth. 2007;10(2): 132-6. Available from: http://www.annals.in/text.asp?2007/10/2/132/37939.

44. Peyton PJ, Chong SW. Minimally invasive measurement of cardiac output during surgery and critical care: a meta-analysis of accuracy and precision. Anesthesiology. 2010;113(5):1220-35. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e3181ee3130.

45. Chiang Y, Hosseinian L, Rhee A, Itagaki S, Cav-allaro P, Chikwe J. Questionable benefit of the pulmonary artery catheter after cardiac surgery in high-risk patients. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2015;29(1):76-81. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2014.07.017.

46. Kirov MY, Kuzkov VV, Molnar Z. Perioperative haemodynamic therapy. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2010;16(4):384-92. doi: 10.1097/MCC.0b013e32833ab81e.

47. Kirov MY, Kuzkov VV, Bjertnaes LJ. Extravascular lung water as a target for goal-directed therapy? In: Vincent JL, editor. Annual update in intensive care emergency medicine. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 285-98.

48. Kirov MY, Lenkin AI, Kuzkov VV, Suborov EV, Slastilin VY, Borodin VV, Chernov II, Shon-bin AN, Bjertnaes LJ. Single transpulmonary thermodilution in off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: haemodynamic changes and effects of different anaesthetic techniques. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2007;51(4):426-33. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-6576.2006.01247.x.

49. Monnet X, Persichini R, Ktari M, Jozwiak M, Richard C, Teboul JL. Precision of the transpulmonary thermodilution measurements. Crit Care. 2011;15(4):R204. doi: 10.1186/cc10421.

50. Schmid B, Fink K, Olschewski M, Richter S, Schwab T, Brunner M, Busch HJ. Accuracy and precision of transcardiopulmonary thermodilution in patients with cardiogenic shock. J Clin Monit Comput. 2016;30(6):849-56. doi: 10.1007/s10877-015-9782-8.

51. Hamzaoui O, Monnet X, Richard C, Osman D, Chemla D, Teboul JL. Effects of changes in vascular tone on the agreement between pulse contour and transpulmonary thermodilution cardiac output measurements within an up to 6-hour calibration-free period. Crit Care Med. 2008;36(2):434-40. doi: 10.1097/01.CCM.OB013E318161FEC4.

52. Broch O, Renner J, Hocker J, Gruenewald M, Meybohm P, Schottler J, Steinfath M, Bein B. Uncalibrated pulse power analysis fails to reliably measure cardiac output in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Crit Care. 2011;15(1):R76. doi: 10.1186/cc10065.

53. Belda FJ, Aguilar G, Teboul JL, Pestana D, Redondo FJ, Malbrain M, Luis JC, Ramasco F, Umgelter A, Wendon J, Kirov M, Fernan-dez-Mondejar E; PICS Investigators Group. Complications related to less-invasive haemodynamic monitoring. Br J Anaesth. 2011;106(4): 482-6. doi: 10.1093/bja/aeq377.

54. Linton RA, Band DM, Haire KM. A new method of measuring cardiac output in man using lithium dilution. Br J Anaesth. 1993;71(2):262-6. doi: 10.1093/bja/71.2.262.

55. Phan TD, Kluger R, Wan C, Wong D, Padaya-chee A. A comparison of three minimally invasive cardiac output devices with thermodilution in elective cardiac surgery. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2011 ;39(6): 1014-21. doi: 10.1177/0310057X1103900606.

56. Desebbe O, Henaine R, Keller G, Koffel C, Garcia H, Rosamel P, Obadia JF, Bastien O, Lehot JJ, Haftek M, Critchley LA. Ability of the third-generation FloTrac/Vigileo software to track changes in cardiac output in cardiac surgery patients: a polar plot approach. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2013;27(6):1122-7. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2013.03.008.

57. Smetkin AA, Hussain A, Kuzkov VV, Bjertnæs LJ, Kirov MY. Validation of cardiac output monitoring based on uncalibrated pulse contour analysis vs transpulmonary thermodilution during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Br J Anaesth. 2014;112(6):1024-31. doi: 10.1093/bja/aet489.

58. Broch O, Carbonell J, Ferrando C, Metzner M, Carstens A, Albrecht M, Gruenewald M, Hocker J, Soro M, Steinfath M, Renner J, Bein B. Accuracy of an autocalibrated pulse contour analysis in cardiac surgery patients: a bi-center clinical trial. BMC Anesthesiol. 2015;15:171. doi: 10.1186/s12871-015-0153-2.

59. Stephens RS, Whitman GJ. Postoperative critical care of the adult cardiac surgical patient. Part I: Routine postoperative care. Crit Care Med. 2015;43(7):1477-97. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001059.

60. Greenberg SB, Murphy GS, Vender JS. Current use of the pulmonary artery catheter. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2009;15(3):249-53. doi: 10.1097/MCC.0b013e32832b302b.

61. Schwann TA, Zacharias A, Riordan CJ, Durham SJ, Engoren M, Habib RH. Safe, highly selective use of pulmonary artery catheters in coronary artery bypass grafting: an objective patient selection method. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002;73(5):1394-401. doi: 10.1016/s0003-4975(02)03422-7.

62. Bisgaard J, Gilsaa T, Ronholm E, Toft P. Optimising stroke volume and oxygen delivery in abdominal aortic surgery: a randomised controlled trial. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2013;57(2):178-88. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-6576.2012.02756.x.

63. Resano FG, Kapetanakis EI, Hill PC, Haile E, Corso PJ. Clinical outcomes of low-risk patients undergoing beating-heart surgery with or without pulmonary artery catheterization. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2006;20(3):300-6. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2006.01.017.

64. Bonazzi M, Gentile F, Biasi GM, Migliavacca S, Esposti D, Cipolla M, Marsicano M, Prampo-lini F, Ornaghi M, Sternjakob S, Tshomba Y. Impact of perioperative haemodynamic monitoring on cardiac morbidity after major vascular surgery in low risk patients. A randomised pilot trial. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2002;23(5): 445-51. doi: 10.1053/ejvs.2002.1617.

65. McKendry M, McGloin H, Saberi D, Caudwell L, Brady AR, Singer M. Randomised controlled trial assessing the impact of a nurse delivered, flow monitored protocol for optimisation of circulatory status after cardiac surgery. BMJ. 2004;329(7460):258. doi: 10.1136/bm-j.38156.767118.7C.

66. Polonen P, Ruokonen E, Hippelainen M, Poyhonen M, Takala J. A prospective, randomized study of goal-oriented hemodynamic therapy in cardiac surgical patients. Anesth Analg. 2000;90(5):1052-9. doi: 10.1097/00000539-200005000-00010.

67. Kapoor PM, Kakani M, Chowdhury U, Choud-hury M, Lakshmy, Kiran U. Early goal-directed therapy in moderate to high-risk cardiac surgery patients. Ann Card Anaesth. 2008;11(1): 27-34.

68. Goepfert MS, Reuter DA, Akyol D, Lamm P, Kilg-er E, Goetz AE. Goal-directed fluid management reduces vasopressor and catecholamine use in cardiac surgery patients. Intensive Care Med. 2007;33(1):96-103. doi: 10.1007/s00134-006-0404-2.

69. Smetkin AA, Kirov MY, Kuzkov VV, Lenkin AI, Eremeev AV, Slastilin VY, Borodin VV, Bjertnaes LJ. Single transpulmonary thermodilution and continuous monitoring of central venous oxygen saturation during off-pump coronary surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2009;53(4):505-14. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-6576.2008.01855.x.

70. Giglio M, Dalfino L, Puntillo F, Rubino G, Maruc-ci M, Brienza N. Haemodynamic goal-directed therapy in cardiac and vascular surgery. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Interact Car-diovasc Thorac Surg. 2012;15(5):878-87. doi: 10.1093/icvts/ivs323.

71. Aya HD, Cecconi M, Hamilton M, Rhodes A. Goal-directed therapy in cardiac surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Anaesth. 2013;110(4):510-7. doi: 10.1093/bja/aet020.

72. Lobo SM, Salgado PF, Castillo VG, Borim AA, Polachini CA, Palchetti JC, Brienzi SL, de Oliveira GG. Effects of maximizing oxygen delivery on morbidity and mortality in high-risk surgical patients. Crit Care Med. 2000;28(10):3396-404. doi: 10.1097/00003246-200010000-00003.

73. Goepfert MS, Richter HP, Zu Eulenburg C, Gruetzmacher J, Rafflenbeul E, Roeher K, von Sandersleben A, Diedrichs S, Reichenspurner H, Goetz AE, Reuter DA. Individually optimized hemodynamic therapy reduces complications and length of stay in the intensive care unit: a prospective, randomized controlled trial. Anesthesiology. 2013;119(4):824-36. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829bd770.

74. Lenkin AI, Kirov MY, Kuzkov VV, Paromov KV, Smetkin AA, Lie M, Bjertn^s LJ. Comparison of goaldirected hemodynamic optimization using pulmonary artery catheter and transpulmonary thermodilution in combined valve repair: a randomized clinical trial. Crit Care Res Pract. 2012,2012:821218. doi: 10.1155/2012/821218.

75. Melrose DG, Dreyer B, Bentall HH, Baker JB. Elective cardiac arrest. Lancet. 1955,269(6879): 21-2. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(55)93381-X.

76. Zeng J, He W, Qu Z, Tang Y, Zhou Q, Zhang B. Cold blood versus crystalloid cardioplegia for myocardial protection in adult cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2014,28(3): 674-81. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2013.06.005.

77. Mallidi HR, Sever J, Tamariz M, Singh S, Hanay-ama N, Christakis GT, Bhatnagar G, Cutrara CA, Goldman BS, Fremes SE. The short-term and long-term effects of warm or tepid cardioplegia. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2003,125(3): 711-20. doi: 10.1067/mtc.2003.105.

78. Martin TD, Craver JM, Gott JP, Weintraub WS, Ramsay J, Mora CT, Guyton RA. Prospective, randomized trial of retrograde warm blood cardioplegia: myocardial benefit and neurologic threat. Ann Thorac Surg. 1994,57(2): 298-302. doi: 10.1016/0003-4975(94)90987-3.

79. Algarni KD, Weisel RD, Caldarone CA, Ma-ganti M, Tsang K, Yau TM. Microplegia during coronary artery bypass grafting was associated with less low cardiac output syndrome: a propensity-matched comparison. Ann Thorac Surg. 2013,95(5):1532-8. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2012.09.056.

80. McCann UG 2nd, Lutz CJ, Picone AL, Searles B, Gatto LA, Dilip KA, Nieman GF. Whole blood cardioplegia (minicardioplegia) reduces myocardial edema after ischemic injury and cardiopulmonary bypass. J Extra Corpor Technol. 2006,38(1):14-21.

81. Hillis LD, Smith PK, Anderson JL, Bittl JA, Bridges CR, Byrne JG, Cigarroa JE, DiSesa VJ, Hiratzka LF, Hutter AM Jr, Jessen ME, Keeley EC, Lahey SJ, Lange RA, London MJ, Mack MJ, Patel MR, Puskas JD, Sabik JF, Selnes O, Sha-hian DM, Trost JC, Winniford MD, Jacobs AK, Anderson JL, Albert N, Creager MA, Ettinger SM, Guyton RA, Halperin JL, Hochman JS, Kushner FG, Ohman EM, Stevenson W, Yan-cy CW, American College of Cardiology Foundation / American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. 2011 ACCF/AHA guideline for coronary artery bypass graft surgery: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation / American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012,143(1): 4-34. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2011.10.015.

82. Landoni G, Biondi-Zoccai GG, Zangrillo A, Big-nami E, D'Avolio S, Marchetti C, Calabro MG, Fochi O, Guarracino F, Tritapepe L, De Hert S, Torri G. Desflurane and sevoflurane in cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2007,21(4): 502-11. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2007.02.013.

83. Ranucci M, Castelvecchio S, Biondi A, de Vin-centiis C, Ballotta A, Varrica A, Frigiola A, Meni-canti L, Surgical and Clinical Outcome Research (SCORE) Group. A randomized controlled trial of preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump in coronary patients with poor left ventricular function undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Crit Care Med. 2013,41(11):2476-83. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182978dfc.

84. Santarpino G, Onorati F, Rubino AS, Abdalla K, Caroleo S, Santangelo E, Renzulli A. Preoperative intraaortic balloon pumping improves outcomes for high-risk patients in routine coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2009,87(2):481-8. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2008.11.007.

85. Ranucci M, Ballotta A, Castelvecchio S, De Vin-centiis C, Biondi A, Parisi A, Menicanti L, Frigiola A, Surgical and Clinical Outcome REsearch (SCORE) Group. Perioperative heart failure in coronary surgery and timing of intra-aortic balloon pump insertion. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2010,54(7):878-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-6576.2010.02252.x.

86. Pilarczyk K, Boening A, Jakob H, Langebar-tels G, Markewitz A, Haake N, Heringlake M, Trummer G. Preoperative intra-aortic counterpulsation in high-risk patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2016,49(1):5-17. doi: 10.1093/ejcts/ezv258.

87. Morkin E, Flink IL, Goldman S. Biochemical and physiologic effects of thyroid hormone on cardiac performance. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1983,25(5):435-64. doi: 10.1016/0033-0620(83)90004-X.

88. Haas NA, Camphausen CK, Kececioglu D. Clinical review: thyroid hormone replacement in children after cardiac surgery - is it worth a try? Crit Care. 2006,10(3):213. doi: 10.1186/cc4924.

89. Holland FW 2nd, Brown PS Jr, Weintraub BD, Clark RE. Cardiopulmonary bypass and thyroid function: a "euthyroid sick syndrome". Ann Thorac Surg. 1991,52(1):46-50. doi: 10.1016/0003-4975(91)91416-s.

90. Cerillo AG, Storti S, Kallushi E, Haxhiademi D, Miceli A, Murzi M, Berti S, Glauber M, Clerico A, Iervasi G. The low triiodothyronine syndrome: a strong predictor of low cardiac output and death in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Surg. 2014,97(6):2089-95. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2014.01.049.

91. Mullis-Jansson SL, Argenziano M, Corwin S, Homma S, Weinberg AD, Williams M, Rose EA, Smith CR. A randomized double-blind study of the effect of triiodothyronine on cardiac function and morbidity after coronary bypass surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1999,117(6):1128-34. doi: 10.1016/s0022-5223(99)70249-7.

92. Choi YS, Shim JK, Song JW, Song Y, Yang SY, Kwak YL. Efficacy of perioperative oral triiodothyronine replacement therapy in patients undergoing offpump coronary artery bypass grafting. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2013,27(6):1218-23. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2013.01.027.

93. Choi YS, Kwak YL, Kim JC, Chun DH, Hong SW, Shim JK. Peri-operative oral triiodothyronine replacement therapy to prevent postoperative low triiodothyronine state following valvular heart surgery. Anaesthesia. 2009,64(8):871-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2044.2009.05984.x.

94. Nielsen DV, Hansen MK, Johnsen SP, Hansen M, Hindsholm K, Jakobsen CJ. Health outcomes with and without use of inotropic therapy in cardiac surgery: results of a propensity score-matched analysis. Anesthesiology. 2014,120(5):1098-108. doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000224.

95. Bayram M, De Luca L, Massie MB, Gheorghi-ade M. Reassessment of dobutamine, dopamine, and milrinone in the management of acute heart failure syndromes. Am J Cardiol. 2005,96(6A):47G-58G. doi: 10.1016/j.amj-card.2005.07.021.

96. MacGregor DA, Smith TE, Prielipp RC, Butter-worth JF, James RL, Scuderi PE. Pharmacokinetics of dopamine in healthy male subjects. Anesthesiology. 2000,92(2):338-46. doi: 10.1097/00000542-200002000-00013.

97. Packer M, Medina N, Yushak M. Hemodynamic and clinical limitations of long-term inotropic therapy with amrinone in patients with severe chronic heart failure. Circulation. 1984,70(6): 1038-47. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.70.6.1038.

98. Huckauf H, Ramdohr B, Schroder R. Dopamine induced hypoxemia in patients with left heart failure. Int J Clin Pharmacol Biopharm. 1976,14(3):217-24.

99. O'Regan RG, Majcherczyk S. Role of peripheral chemoreceptors and central chemosensitivity in the regulation of respiration and circulation. J Exp Biol. 1982;100:23-40.

100. Johnson RL Jr. Low-dose dopamine and oxygen transport by the lung. Circulation. 1998;98(2):97-9. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.98.2.97.

101. van de Borne P, Oren R, Somers VK. Dopamine depresses minute ventilation in patients with heart failure. Circulation. 1998;98(2):126-31. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.98.2.126.

102. Marik PE, Iglesias J. Low-dose dopamine does not prevent acute renal failure in patients with septic shock and oliguria. NORASEPT II Study Investigators. Am J Med. 1999;107(4):387-90. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9343(99)00246-6.

103. Bellomo R, Chapman M, Finfer S, Hickling K, Myburgh J. Low-dose dopamine in patients with early renal dysfunction: a placebo-controlled randomised trial. Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society (ANZICS) Clinical Trials Group. Lancet. 2000;356(9248):2139-43. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(00)03495-4.

104. Kellum JA, M Decker J. Use of dopamine in acute renal failure: a meta-analysis. Crit Care Med. 2001 ;29(8):1526-31. doi: 10.1097/00003246-200108000-00005.

105. Tuttle RR, Mills J. Dobutamine: development of a new catecholamine to selectively increase cardiac contractility. Circ Res. 1975;36(1):185-96. doi: 10.1161/01.res.36.1.185.

106. Ruffolo RR Jr. The pharmacology of dobutamine. Am J Med Sci. 1987;294(4):244-8. doi: 10.1097/00000441-198710000-00005.

107. Leier CV, Webel J, Bush CA. The cardiovascular effects of the continuous infusion of dobutamine in patients with severe cardiac failure. Circulation. 1977;56(3):468-72. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.56.3.468.

108. Jewitt D, Birkhead J, Mitchell A, Dollery C. Clinical cardiovascular pharmacology of dobutamine. A selective inotropic catecholamine. Lancet. 1974;2(7877):363-7. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(74)91754-1.

109. Barbato E, Bartunek J, Wyffels E, Wijns W, Heyn-drickx GR, De Bruyne B. Effects of intravenous dobutamine on coronary vasomotion in humans. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003;42(9):1596-601. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2003.03.001.

110. Meyer SL, Curry GC, Donsky MS, Twieg DB, Par-key RW, Willerson JT. Influence of dobutamine on hemodynamics and coronary blood flow in patients with and without coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol. 1976;38(1):103-8. doi: 10.1016/0002-9149(76)90070-9.

111. Rahimtoola SH. Hibernating myocardium has reduced blood flow at rest that increases with low-dose dobutamine. Circulation. 1996;94(12):3055-61. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.94.12.3055.

112. Richard C, Ricome JL, Rimailho A, Bottineau G, Auzepy P. Combined hemodynamic effects of dopamine and dobutamine in cardiogenic shock. Circulation. 1983;67(3):620-6. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.67.3.620.

113. Martin C, Viviand X, Leone M, Thirion X. Effect of norepinephrine on the outcome of septic shock. Crit Care Med. 2000;28(8):2758-65. doi: 10.1097/00003246-200008000-00012.

114. Martin C, Papazian L, Perrin G, Saux P, Gouin F. Norepinephrine or dopamine for the treatment of hyperdynamic septic shock? Chest. 1993;103(6):1826-31. doi: 10.1378/chest.103.6.1826.

115. Fukuoka T, Nishimura M, Imanaka H, Taena-ka N, Yoshiya I, Takezawa J. Effects of norepinephrine on renal function in septic patients with normal and elevated serum lactate levels. Crit Care Med. 1989;17(11):1104-7. doi: 10.1097/00003246-198911000-00003.

116. Martin C, Eon B, Saux P, Aknin P, Gouin F. Renal effects of norepinephrine used to treat septic shock patients. Crit Care Med. 1990;18(3):282-5. doi: 10.1097/00003246-199003000-00007.

117. Takala J. Determinants of splanchnic blood flow. Br J Anaesth. 1996;77(1):50-8. doi: 10.1093/bja/77.1.50.

118. Totaro RJ, Raper RF. Epinephrine-induced lactic acidosis following cardiopulmonary bypass. Crit Care Med. 1997;25(10):1693-9. doi: 10.1097/00003246-199710000-00019.

119. Kemp SF, Lockey RF, Simons FE; World Allergy Organization ad hoc Committee on Epinephrine in Anaphylaxis. Epinephrine: the drug of choice for anaphylaxis. A statement of the World Allergy Organization. Allergy. 2008;63(8):1061-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2008.01733.x.

120. Senz A, Nunnink L. Review article: inotrope and vasopressor use in the emergency department. Emerg Med Australas. 2009;21(5):342-51. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-6723.2009.01210.x.

121. Reinelt H, Radermacher P, Kiefer P, Fischer G, Wachter U, Vogt J, Georgieff M. Impact of exogenous beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation on hepatosplanchnic oxygen kinetics and metabolic activity in septic shock. Crit Care Med. 1999;27(2):325-31. doi: 10.1097/00003246-199902000-00039.

122. Shanmugam G. Vasoplegic syndrome - the role of methylene blue. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2005;28(5):705-10. doi: 10.1016/j.ejcts.2005.07.011.

123. Kristof AS, Magder S. Low systemic vascular resistance state in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Crit Care Med. 1999;27(6): 1121-7. doi: 10.1097/00003246-199906000-00033.

124. Parissis JT, Farmakis D, Nieminen M. Classical inotropes and new cardiac enhancers. Heart Fail Rev. 2007;12(2):149-56. doi: 10.1007/s10741-007-9014-5.

125. Movsesian M, Stehlik J, Vandeput F, Bristow MR. Phosphodiesterase inhibition in heart failure. Heart Fail Rev. 2009;14(4):255-63. doi: 10.1007/s10741-008-9130-x.

126. Mebazaa A, Parissis J, Porcher R, Gayat E, Niko-laou M, Boas FV, Delgado JF, Follath F. Mebazaa A, Parissis J, Porcher R, Gayat E, Nikolaou M, Boas FV, Delgado JF, Follath F. Short-term survival by treatment among patients hospitalized with acute heart failure: the global ALARM-HF registry using propensity scoring methods. Intensive Care Med. 2011;37(2):290-301. doi: 10.1007/s00134-010-2073-4.

127. Metra M, Eichhorn E, Abraham WT, Linseman J, Bohm M, Corbalan R, DeMets D, De Marco T, Elkayam U, Gerber M, Komajda M, Liu P, Ma-reev V, Perrone SV, Poole-Wilson P, Roecker E, Stewart J, Swedberg K, Tendera M, Wiens B, Bristow MR; ESSENTIAL Investigators. Effects of low-dose oral enoximone administration on mortality, morbidity, and exercise capacity in patients with advanced heart failure: the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group ESSENTIAL trials. Eur Heart J. 2009;30(24):3015-26. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehp338.

128. Packer M, Carver JR, Rodeheffer RJ, Ivanhoe RJ, DiBianco R, Zeldis SM, Hendrix GH, Bom-mer WJ, Elkayam U, Kukin ML. Effect of oral milrinone on mortality in severe chronic heart failure. The PROMISE Study Research Group. N Engl J Med. 1991 ;325(21 ):1468-75. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199111213252103.

129. Abraham WT, Adams KF, Fonarow GC, Costan-zo MR, Berkowitz RL, LeJemtel TH, Cheng ML, Wynne J; ADHERE Scientific Advisory Committee and Investigators; ADHERE Study Group. In-hospital mortality in patients with acute decompensated heart failure requiring intravenous vasoactive medications: an analysis from the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry (ADHERE). J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;46(1):57-64. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2005.03.051.

130. Majure DT, Greco T, Greco M, Ponschab M, Biondi-Zoccai G, Zangrillo A, Landoni G. Meta-analysis of randomized trials of effect of milrinone on mortality in cardiac surgery: an update. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2013;27(2): 220-9. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2012.08.005.

131. Zangrillo A, Biondi-Zoccai G, Ponschab M, Greco M, Corno L, Covello RD, Cabrini L, Bignami E, Melisurgo G, Landoni G. Milrinone and mortality in adult cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2012;26(1):70-7. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2011.06.022.

132. Fleming GA, Murray KT, Yu C, Byrne JG, Greel-ish JP, Petracek MR, Hoff SJ, Ball SK, Brown NJ, Pretorius M. Milrinone use is associated with postoperative atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. Circulation. 2008;118(16):1619-25. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.790162.

133. Denault AY, Lamarche Y, Couture P, Haddad F, Lambert J, Tardif JC, Perrault LP. Inhaled milrinone: a new alternative in cardiac surgery? Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2006;10(4): 346-60. doi: 10.1177/1089253206294400.

134. Wang H, Gong M, Zhou B, Dai A. Comparison of inhaled and intravenous milrinone in patients with pulmonary hypertension undergoing mitral valve surgery. Adv Ther. 2009;26(4):462-8. doi: 10.1007/s12325-009-0019-4.

135. I chinose F, Roberts JD Jr, Zapol WM. Inhaled nitric oxide: a selective pulmonary vasodilator: current uses and therapeutic potential. Circulation. 2004;109(25):3106-11. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000134595.80170.62.

136. De Wet CJ, Affleck DG, Jacobsohn E, Avidan MS, Tymkew H, Hill LL, Zanaboni PB, Moazami N, Smith JR. Inhaled prostacyclin is safe, effective, and affordable in patients with pulmonary hypertension, right heart dysfunction, and refractory hypoxemia after cardiothoracic surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004;127(4): 1058-67. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2003.11.035.

137. Slawsky MT, Colucci WS, Gottlieb SS, Greenberg BH, Haeusslein E, Hare J, Hutchins S, Leier CV, LeJemtel TH, Loh E, Nicklas J, Ogilby D, Singh BN, Smith W. Acute hemodynamic and clinical effects of levosimendan in patients with severe heart failure. Study Investigators. Circulation. 2000;102(18):2222-7. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.102.18.2222.

138. Haikala H, Nissinen E, Etemadzadeh E, Levi-joki J, Linden IB. Troponin C-mediated calcium sensitization induced by levosimendan does not impair relaxation. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1995;25(5):794-801. doi: 10.1097/00005344-199505000-00016.

139. Lilleberg J, Nieminen MS, Akkila J, Heikkila L, Kuitunen A, Lehtonen L, Verkkala K, Mattila S, Salmenpera M. Effects of a new calcium sensitizer, levosimendan, on haemodynamics, coronary blood flow and myocardial substrate utilization early after coronary artery bypass grafting. Eur Heart J. 1998;19(4):660-8. doi: 10.1053/euhj.1997.0806.

140. Michaels AD, McKeown B, Kostal M, Vakhar-ia KT, Jordan MV, Gerber IL, Foster E, Chatter-jee K. Effects of intravenous levosimendan on human coronary vasomotor regulation, left ventricular wall stress, and myocardial oxygen uptake. Circulation. 2005;111(12):1504-9. doi: 10.1161/01.CIR.0000159252.82444.22.

141. du Toit EF, Genis A, Opie LH, Pollesello P, Loch-ner A. A role for the RISK pathway and K(ATP) channels in pre- and post-conditioning induced by levosimendan in the isolated guinea pig heart. Br J Pharmacol. 2008;154(1): 41-50. doi: 10.1038/bjp.2008.52.

142. Honisch A, Theuring N, Ebner B, Wagner C, Strasser RH, Weinbrenner C. Postconditioning with levosimendan reduces the infarct size involving the PI3K pathway and KATP-channel activation but is independent of PDE-III inhibition. Basic Res Cardiol. 2010;105(2):155-67. doi: 10.1007/s00395-009-0064-9.

143. Landoni G, Biondi-Zoccai G, Greco M, Greco T, Bignami E, Morelli A, Guarracino F, Zangrillo A. Effects of levosimendan on mortality and hospitalization. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. Crit Care Med. 2012;40(2):634-46. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e318232962a.

144. Zangrillo A, Putzu A, Monaco F, Oriani A, Frau G, De Luca M, Di Tomasso N, Bignami E, Lomivorotov V, Likhvantsev V, Landoni G. Lev-osimendan reduces mortality in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock: A meta-analysis of randomized trials. J Crit Care. 2015;30(5): 908-13. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2015.05.017.

145. Bove T, Matteazzi A, Belletti A, Paternoster G, Saleh O, Taddeo D, Dossi R, Greco T, Bradic N, Husedzinovic I, Nigro Neto C, Lomivorotov VV, Calabro MG. Beneficial impact of levosim-endan in critically ill patients with or at risk for acute renal failure: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Heart Lung Vessel. 2015;7(1):35-46.

146. Levin RL, Degrange MA, Porcile R, Salvagio F, Blanco N, Botbol AL, Tanus E, del Mazo CD. The calcium sensitizer levosimendan gives superior results to dobutamine in postoperative low cardiac output syndrome. Rev Esp Cardiol. 2008;61(5):471-9. doi: 10.1016/S1885-5857(08)60160-7.

147. Toller W, Heringlake M, Guarracino F, Algots-son L, Alvarez J, Argyriadou H, Ben-Gal T, Cerny V, Cholley B, Eremenko A, Guerrero-Or-riach JL, Jarvela K, Karanovic N, Kivikko M, Lahtinen P, Lomivorotov V, Mehta RH, Music S, Pollesello P, Rex S, Riha H, Rudiger A, Sal-menpera M, Szudi L, Tritapepe L, Wyncoll D, Owall A. Preoperative and perioperative use of levosimendan in cardiac surgery: European expert opinion. Int J Cardiol. 2015;184:323-36. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.02.022.

148. Tritapepe L, De Santis V, Vitale D, Guarracino F, Pellegrini F, Pietropaoli P, Singer M. Levosimendan pretreatment improves outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Br J Anaesth. 2009;102(2):198-204. doi: 10.1093/bja/aen367.

149. Levin R, Degrange M, Del Mazo C, Tanus E, Porcile R. Preoperative levosimendan decreases mortality and the development of low cardiac output in high-risk patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass. Exp Clin Cardiol. 2012;17(3):125-30.

150. Lahtinen P, Pitkanen O, Polonen P, Turpeinen A, Kiviniemi V, Uusaro A. Levosimendan reduces heart failure after cardiac surgery: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Crit Care Med. 2011;39(10):2263-70. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182227b97.

151. Cholley B, Caruba T, Grosjean S, Amour J, Ouat-tara A, Villacorta J, Miguet B, Guinet P, Levy F, Squara P, Alt Hamou N, Carillion A, Boyer J, Boughenou MF, Rosier S, Robin E, Radutoiu M, Durand M, Guidon C, Desebbe O, Charles-Nel-son A, Menasche P, Rozec B, Girard C, Fellahi JL, Pirracchio R, Chatellier G. Effect of Levosimendan on Low Cardiac Output Syndrome in Patients With Low Ejection Fraction Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting With Cardiopulmonary Bypass: The LICORN Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2017;318(6):548-56. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.9973.

152. Mehta RH, Leimberger JD, van Diepen S, Meza J, Wang A, Jankowich R, Harrison RW, Hay D, Fremes S, Duncan A, Soltesz EG, Lu-ber J, Park S, Argenziano M, Murphy E, Marcel R, Kalavrouziotis D, Nagpal D, Bozinovski J, Toller W, Heringlake M, Goodman SG, Levy JH, Harrington RA, Anstrom KJ, Alexander JH; LEVO-CTS Investigators. Levosimendan in Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction Undergoing Cardiac Surgery. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(21 ):2032-42. doi: 10.1056/NEJ-Moa1616218.

153. Landoni G, Lomivorotov VV, Alvaro G, Lobreg-lio R, Pisano A, Guarracino F, Calabro MG, Grigoryev EV, Likhvantsev VV, Salgado-Filho MF, Bianchi A, Pasyuga VV, Baiocchi M, Pappalar-do F, Monaco F, Boboshko VA, Abubakirov MN, Amantea B, Lembo R, Brazzi L, Verniero L, Berti-ni P, Scandroglio AM, Bove T, Belletti A, Michien-zi MG, Shukevich DL, Zabelina TS, Bellomo R, Zangrillo A; CHEETAH Study Group. Levosimendan for Hemodynamic Support after Cardiac Surgery. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(21):2021-31. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1616325.

154. Lomivorotov VV, Boboshko VA, Efremov SM, Kornilov IA, Chernyavskiy AM, Lomivor-otov VN, Knazkova LG, Karaskov AM. Levosim-endan versus an intra-aortic balloon pump in high-risk cardiac patients. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2012;26(4):596-603. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2011.09.006.

155. den Uil CA, Valk SD, Cheng JM, Kap-petein AP, Bogers AJ, van Domburg RT, Simoons ML. Prognosis of patients undergoing cardiac surgery and treated with intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation prior to surgery: A long-term follow-up study. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2009;9:227-31. doi: 10.1510/icvts.2009.207027

156. Fan Y, Zhang AM, Xiao YB, Weng YG, Het-zer R. Glucose-insulin-potassium therapy in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery: A meta-analysis. Eur J Cardi-othorac Surg. 2011;40:192-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ejcts.2010.10.007

157. Szabo Z, Hakanson E, Maros T, Svedjeholm R. High-dose glucose-insulin-potassium after cardiac surgery: A retrospective analysis of clinical safety issues. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2003;47:383-90. doi: 10.1034/j.1399-6576.2003.00082.x

158. Ali-Hassan-Sayegh S, Mirhosseini SJ, Zeri-ouh M, Dehghan AM, Shahidzadeh A, Kari-mi-Bondarabadi AA, Sabashnikov A, Popov AF. Safety and efficacy of glucose-insulin-potassium treatment in coronary artery bypass graft surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2015;21:667-76. doi: 10.1093/icvts/ivv222.

159. Heinze H, Heringlake M, Schmucker P, Uhlig T. Effects of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation on parameters of tissue oxygenation. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2006;23:555-62. doi: 10.1017/S0265021505001973.

160. Parissis H, Leotsinidis M, Akbar MT, Apos-tolakis E, Dougenis D. The need for intra aortic balloon pump support following open heart surgery: Risk analysis and outcome. J Cardi-othorac Surg. 2010;5:20. doi: 10.1186/1749-8090-5-20.

161. Arafa OE, Geiran OR, Andersen K, Fosse E, Si-monsen S, Svennevig JL. Intraaortic balloon pumping for predominantly right ventricular failure after heart transplantation. Ann Thorac Surg. 2000;70:1587-93. doi: 10.1016/S0003-4975(00)01864-6.

162. Boeken U, Feindt P, Litmathe J, Kurt M, Gams E. Intraaortic balloon pumping in patients with right ventricular insufficiency after cardiac surgery: Parameters to predict failure of IABP support. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2009;57:324-8. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1185766.

163. Meharwal ZS, Trehan N. Vascular complications of intra-aortic balloon insertion in patients undergoing coronary revascularization: Analysis of 911 cases. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2002;21:741-7. doi: 10.1016/s1010-7940(02)00034-9.

164. Cohen M, Urban P, Christenson JT, Joseph DL, Freedman RJ Jr, Miller MF, Ohman EM, Reddy RC, Stone GW, Ferguson JJ 3rd; Benchmark Registry Collaborators. Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation in US and non-US centres: Results of the Benchmark Registry. Eur Heart J. 2003;24:1763-70. doi: 10.1016/j.ehj.2003.07.002.

165. Kolh P, Windecker S, Alfonso F, Collet JP, Crem-er J, Falk V, Filippatos G, Hamm C, Head SJ, Juni P, Kappetein AP, Kastrati A, Knuuti J, Landmesser U, Laufer G, Neumann FJ, Richter DJ, Schauerte P, Sousa Uva M, Stefanini GG, Taggart DP, Torracca L, Valgimigli M, Wijns W, Witkowski A; European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines, Zamora-no JL, Achenbach S, Baumgartner H, Bax JJ, Bueno H, Dean V, Deaton C, Erol </, Fagard R, Ferrari R, Hasdai D, Hoes AW, Kirchhof P, Knuuti J, Kolh P, Lancellotti P, Linhart A, Nihoyan-nopoulos P, Piepoli MF, Ponikowski P, Sirnes PA, Tamargo JL, Tendera M, Torbicki A, Wijns W, Windecker S; EACTS Clinical Guidelines Committee, Sousa Uva M, Achenbach S, Pepper J, Anyanwu A, Badimon L, Bauersachs J, Baum-bach A, Beygui F, Bonaros N, De Carlo M, Deaton C, Dobrev D, Dunning J, Eeckhout E, Gielen S, Hasdai D, Kirchhof P, Luckraz H, Mahrholdt H, Montalescot G, Paparella D, Rastan AJ, Sanmartin M, Sergeant P, Silber S, Tamargo J, ten Berg J, Thiele H, van Geuns RJ, Wagner HO, Wassmann S, Wendler O, Zamora-no JL; Task Force on Myocardial Revascularization of the European Society of Cardiology and the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery; European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions 2014 ESC/ EACTS Guidelines on myocardial revascularization: The Task Force on Myocardial Revascularization of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Association for Car-dio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS). Developed with the special contribution. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2014;46:517-92. doi: 10.1093/ejcts/ezu366.

166. Koprivanac M, Kelava M, Soltesz E, Smedira N, Kapadia S, Brzezinski A, Alansari S, Moazami N. Advances in temporary mechanical support for treatment of cardiogenic shock. Expert Rev Med Devices. 2015;12:689-702. doi: 10.1586/17434440.2015.1086265.

167. Pulido JN, Park SJ, Rihal CS. Percutaneous left ventricular assist devices: Clinical uses, future applications, and anesthetic considerations. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2010;24:478-86. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2009.10.026.

168. Tramm R, Ilic D, Davies AR, Pellegrino VA, Romero L, Hodgson C. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for critically ill adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;1:CD010381. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010381.pub2.

169. Rastan AJ, Dege A, Mohr M, Doll N, Falk V, Walther T, Mohr FW. Early and late outcomes of 517 consecutive adult patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;139:302-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2009.10.043.

170. Smith C, Bellomo R, Raman JS, Matalanis G, Ro-salion A, Buckmaster J, Hart G, Silvester W, Gut-teridge GA, Smith B, Doolan L, Buxton BF. An extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-based approach to cardiogenic shock in an older population. Ann Thorac Surg. 2001;71:1421-7. doi: 10.1016/S0003-4975(00)02504-2.

171. Bakhtiary F, Keller H, Dogan S, Dzemali O, Oezaslan F, Meininger D, Ackermann H, Zwissler B, Kleine P, Moritz A. Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for treatment of cardiogenic shock: Clinical experiences in 45 adult patients. J Thorac Car-diova sc Surg. 2008;135:382-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2007.08.007.

172. Zhang R, Kofidis T, Kamiya H, Shrestha M, Tess-mann R, Haverich A, Klima U. Creatine kinase isoenzyme MB relative index as predictor of mortality on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock in adult patients. Eur J Cardi-othorac Surg. 2006;30:617-20. doi: 10.1016/j.ejcts.2006.07.016.

173. Xie A, Phan K, Tsai YC, Yan TD, Forrest P. Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest: A meta-analysis. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2015;29:637-45. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2014.09.005.

174. Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry report (international summary), Ann Arbor, MI, Extracorporeal Life Support Organization, July, 2018, p. 1. Available from: https://www.elso.org/Registry/Statistics/Internation-alSummary.aspx.

175. Montgomery VL, Strotman JM, Ross MP. Impact of multiple organ system dysfunction and nosocomial infections on survival of children treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after heart surgery. Crit Care Med. 2000;28:526-31. doi: 10.1097/00003246-200002000-00040.

176. Schutze GE, Heulitt MJ. Infections during extracorporeal life support. J Pediatr Surg. 1995;30:809-12. doi: 10.1016/0022-3468(95)90753-X.

177. Nasr DM, Rabinstein AA. Neurologic complications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. J Clin Neurol. 2015;11:383-9. doi: 10.3988/jcn.2015.11.4.383.

178. Doll N, Kiaii B, Borger M, Bucerius J, Kramer K, Schmitt DV, Walther T, Mohr FW. Five-year results of 219 consecutive patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory postoperative cardiogenic shock. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004;77:151-7. doi: 10.1016/S0003-4975(03)01329-8.

179. Basra SS, Loyalka P, Kar B. Current status of percutaneous ventricular assist devices for cardiogenic shock. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2011;26:548-54. doi: 10.1097/HCO.0b013e32834b803c.

180. Griffith BP, Anderson MB, Samuels LE, Pae WE Jr, Naka Y, Frazier OH. The RECOVER I: A multicenter prospective study of Impella 5.0/ LD for postcardiotomy circulatory support. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2013;145:548-54. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2012.01.067.

181. Gaudard P, Mourad M, Eliet J, Zeroual N, Cu-las G, Rouviere P, Albat B, Colson P. Management and outcome of patients supported with Impella 5.0 for refractory cardiogenic shock. Crit Care. 2015;19:363. doi: 10.1186/s13054-015-1073-8.

182. Lamarche Y, Cheung A, Ignaszewski A, Higgins J, Kaan A, Griesdale DEG, Moss R. Comparative outcomes in cardiogenic shock patients managed with Impella microaxial pump or extracorporeal life support. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011;142:60-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.07.075.

183. Lauten A, Engstrom AE, Jung C, Empen K, Erne P, Cook S, Windecker S, Bergmann MW, Klingenberg R, Luscher TF, Haude M, Rulands D, Butter C, Ullman B, Hellgren L, Modena MG, Pe-drazzini G, Henriques JP, Figulla HR, Ferrari M. Percutaneous left-ventricular support with the Impella-2.5-assist device in acute cardiogenic shock: Results of the Impella-EURO-SHOCK-registry. Circ Heart Fail. 2013;6:23-30. doi: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.112.967224.

184. Anderson MB, Goldstein J, Milano C, Morris LD, Kormos RL, Bhama J, Kapur NK, Bansal A Garcia J, Baker JN, Silvestry S, Holman WL, Douglas PS, O'Neill W. Benefits of a novel percutaneous ventricular assist device for right heart failure: The prospective RECOVER RIGHT study of the Impella RP device. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2015;34:1549-60. doi: 10.1016/j.healun.2015.08.018.

185. Borisenko O, Wylie G, Payne J, Bjessmo S, Smith J, Yonan N, Firmin R. Thoratec CentriM-ag for temporary treatment of refractory cardiogenic shock or severe cardiopulmonary insufficiency: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of observational studies. ASAIO J. 2014;60:487-97. doi: 10.1097/MAT.0000000000000117.

186. Bhama JK, Kormos RL, Toyoda Y, Teuteberg JJ, McCurry KR, Siegenthaler MP. Clinical experience using the Levitronix CentriMag system for temporary right ventricular mechanical circulatory support. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2009;28:971-6. doi: 10.1016/j.healun.2009.04.015.

187. Kar B, Gregoric ID, Basra SS, Idelchik GM, Loyalka P. The percutaneous ventricular assist device in severe refractory cardiogenic shock. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;57:688-96. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.08.613.

188. Burkhoff D, Cohen H, Brunckhorst C, O'Neill WW; TandemHeart Investigators Group. A randomized multicenter clinical study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the TandemHeart percutaneous ventricular assist device versus conventional therapy with intraaortic balloon pumping for treatment of cardiogenic shock. Am Heart J. 2006;152:469. e1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2006.05.031.

189. Giesler GM, Gomez JS, Letsou G, Vooletich M, Smalling RW. Initial report of percutaneous right ventricular assist for right ventricular shock secondary to right ventricular infarction. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2006;68:263-6. doi: 10.1002/ccd.20846.

190. Kapur NK, Paruchuri V, Korabathina R, Al-Mohammdi R, Mudd JO, Prutkin J, Esposito M, Shah A, Kiernan MS, Sech C, Pham DT, Konstam MA, Denofrio D. Effects of a percutaneous mechanical circulatory support device for medically refractory right ventricular failure. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2011;30:1360-7. doi: 10.1016/j.healun.2011.07.005.


Для цитирования:


Мерекин Д.Н., Ломиворотов В.В., Ефремов С.М., Киров М.Ю., Ломиворотов В.Н. Синдром низкого сердечного выброса в кардиохирургии. Альманах клинической медицины. 2019;47(3):276-297. https://doi.org/10.18786/2072-0505-2019-47-035

For citation:


Merekin D.N., Lomivorotov V.V., Efremov S.M., Kirov M.Y., Lomivorotov V.N. Low cardiac output syndrome in cardiac surgery. Almanac of Clinical Medicine. 2019;47(3):276-297. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.18786/2072-0505-2019-47-035

Просмотров: 71


Creative Commons License
Контент доступен под лицензией Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 2072-0505 (Print)
ISSN 2587-9294 (Online)