Prevalence of neoplasms in acromegaly in the Moscow Region

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Abstract

Rationale: Prevalence of neoplasms in patients with acromegaly and the effects of various risk factors on their development have been insufficiently studied.

Aim: To assess the prevalence of thyroid, gastric and colon neoplasms in patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly, depending on their age, gender, duration and activity of the underlying disease.

Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed data extracted from out- and in-patient medical files of 108 patients with acromegaly (25 male, 93 female). Their median age was 50.5 [range 39.3 to 59] years, median duration of acromegaly 5 [range 2 to 10] years (starting from the first appearance of the first physique abnormalities). Thyroid ultrasound was performed in 96 patients, gastroscopy in 92, and colonoscopy in 89.

Results: Benign thyroid nodules were found in 50% (48/96) of patients, malignant thyroid nodules in 6.2% (6/96). Insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels (calculated as a percentage above upper limit of the normal range) in patients with thyroid cancer was 2.3-fold higher than in patients without nodular thyroid disease and 2-fold higher than in patients with benign thyroid nodules (р < 0.012 and p < 0.03, respectively). Malignant neoplasms were more often seen in the elderly (above 60 years of age), compared to younger adults (45 to 60 years) (30.8% and 4.3% of patients, respectively, p = 0.01). Male patients had higher prevalence of thyroid cancer than female (11.1% and 5.1%, respectively). Benign gastrointestinal neoplasms were observed in 51.7% of patients (18% had gastric polyps and 37% colon polyps). Age and duration of acromegaly in patients with gastric neoplasms were higher, than in those without them (р = 0.015 and p = 0.036, respectively). Colon neoplasms consisted of hyperplastic polyps (33.7%) and colon cancer (3% of patients). Patients with colon neoplasms were 11 years older than those without it (p = 0.015).

Conclusion: Gastrointestinal tract and thyroid gland should be diagnostically assessed in all patients at diagnosis of acromegaly, because of the higher risk of the neoplasms in these patients. The association of higher IGF-1 levels with thyroid cancer indicates that this factor may contribute to carcinogenesis and requires further studies.

About the authors

A. V. Dreval'

Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute (MONIKI)

Email: fake@neicon.ru

MD, PhD, Professor, Head of Department of Therapeutic Endocrinology; Chief of Chair of Endocrinology, Postgraduate Training Faculty

61/2 Shchepkina ul., Moscow, 129110, Russian Federation

Russian Federation

I. D. Chikh

Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute (MONIKI)

Author for correspondence.
Email: ichikh72@mail.ru

MD, Deputy Chief Physician in Clinical and Diagnostic Operations

61/2 Shchepkina ul., Moscow, 129110, Russian Federation. Tel.: +7 (916) 450 51 60.

Russian Federation

I. V. Trigolosova

Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute (MONIKI)

Email: fake@neicon.ru

MD, PhD, Consultative and Diagnostics Department

61/2 Shchepkina ul., Moscow, 129110, Russian Federation

Russian Federation

O. A. Nechaeva

Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute (MONIKI)

Email: fake@neicon.ru

MD, PhD, Senior Researcher, Department of Therapeutic Endocrinology

61/2 Shchepkina ul., Moscow, 129110, Russian Federation

Russian Federation

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Copyright (c) 2017 Dreval' A.V., Chikh I.D., Trigolosova I.V., Nechaeva O.A.

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