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ФИЛОМЕТАБОЛИЧЕСКОЕ ЯДРО МИКРОБИОТЫ КИШЕЧНИКА

https://doi.org/10.18786/2072-0505-2015-40-12-34

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Аннотация

Авторы обсуждают теорию сверхорганизма человека и его микробиоты (микробиома), мутуалистические взаимоотношения между которыми реализуются в пределах оси «микробиота – кишечник – мозг», включающей в себя эндокринные, иммунные  и нейрогуморальные пути. Представлены новейшие концепции энтеротипов  микробиома  и ключевой микробиоты кишечника (ядра микробиоты), важные для понимания роли симбиотических микроорганизмов в жизнедеятельности организма  человека, объяснения  патогенеза многих хронических заболеваний  человека (не только гастроэнтерологических), а также поиска эффективных терапевтических мишеней. Показана перспективность функционально-ориентированных подходов к изучению микробиоты, позволивших выдвинуть концепцию филометаболического (филофункционального)  ядра, представляющего собой набор эволюционно стабильных видов микроорганизмов, отвечающих за большинство   основных функций микробиоты, таких как ферментация   полисахаридов   (гликанов),   продукция короткоцепочечных жирных кислот (бутират, пропионат, ацетат), утилизация  водорода, продукция лактата, метаболизм аминокислот, желчных кислот, холина, продукция  витаминов и некоторых  биологически  активных соединений – противовоспалительных, антимикробных, иммуностимулирующих. Авторами впервые описаны основные функциональные группы микроорганизмов филометаболического ядра микробиоты кишечника, обеспечивающие ключевые метаболические  функции, а также ведущие характеристики самого филометаболического  ядра.  Обсуждаются перспективы коррекции  состава  и  функций филометаболического ядра микробиоты с помощью принципиально нового класса терапевтических агентов – метабиотиков. Выдвинуто предположение, что соотношения между основными компонентами  ключевой  микробиоты  кишечника   отражают фундаментальные  процессы,  связанные с взаимодействием микробиоты и организма  человека, и  могут служить эффективными биомаркерами дисбиотических состояний, определяющих  развитие  той или иной патологии. Например, соотношение  между бактероидами и бутират-продуцирующими  бактериями, косвенно указывающее на общее количество микробных генов, может быть использовано как для оценки выраженности хронического воспаления различной  локализации  (от воспалительных заболеваний кишечника до воспалительных изменений  в жировой ткани, связанных с метаболическим синдромом), так и для контроля эффективности проводимой терапии.

Об авторах

С. И. Ситкин
Государственный научно-исследовательский институт особо чистых биопрепаратов, Санкт-Петербург
Россия
Ситкин Станислав Игоревич –  кандидат медицинских наук, доцент, ведущий научный сотрудник лаборатории микробиологии


Е. И. Ткаченко
СевероЗападный государственный медицинский университет имени И.И. Мечникова Санкт-Петербург
Россия
Ткаченко Евгений Иванович –  доктор медицинских наук, профессор, зав. кафедрой пропедевтики внутренних болезней


Т. Я. Вахитов
Государственный научно-исследовательский институт особо чистых биопрепаратов, Санкт-Петербург
Россия
Вахитов Тимур Яшэрович –  доктор биологических наук, начальник лаборатории микробиологии


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Для цитирования:


Ситкин С.И., Ткаченко Е.И., Вахитов Т.Я. ФИЛОМЕТАБОЛИЧЕСКОЕ ЯДРО МИКРОБИОТЫ КИШЕЧНИКА. Альманах клинической медицины. 2015;(40):12-34. https://doi.org/10.18786/2072-0505-2015-40-12-34

For citation:


Sitkin S.I., Tkachenko E.I., Vakhitov T.Y. PHYLOMETABOLIC CORE OF INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA. Almanac of Clinical Medicine. 2015;(40):12-34. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.18786/2072-0505-2015-40-12-34

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